As of 2010, pathogens were the top cause of stream impairments nationally, with over 10,000 stream segments identified as impaired, typically due to elevated concentrations of "fecal indicator bacteria" in waterbodies. This technical summary has been developed to assist federal, state and local governments, watershed organizations, environmental groups and other interested parties in selecting, designing and developing reasonable performance expectations for stormwater best management practices (BMPs) with regard to fecal indicator bacteria. Although numeric effluent limits for stormwater discharges are not typically required in most communities, the implementation phase of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) may result in National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) stormwater discharge permit requirements to address bacteria. Such requirements are typically based on BMPs; therefore, it is important to have a good understanding of sources of bacteria, treatment processes expected to be effective in reducing bacteria and the performance of BMPs.
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Minnesota Water Research Digital Library